The transmission network in Cameroon connects 24 substations by 1,944.29 km of high voltage lines, 15,081.48 km of medium voltage lines and 15,209.25 km of low voltage lines.
The distribution network consists of 11,450 km of lines of low voltage (5.5 – 33 kV) and 11,158 km of lines of medium voltage (220 – 380 kV). Aging energy infrastructure leads to frequent shutdowns and transmission losses are estimated to be around 9%. Power interruptions and load shedding are also common, especially when the rainfall is low. The total cost of investment for the expansion of the transmission and distribution network across the country is estimated to be approximately USD 405 million.
In accordance with the 2011 Law, the unbundling of the transmission network has started. All transmission activities that are presently carried out by ENEO Cameroun S.A., under its transmission concession agreement, will be transferred to the new public transmission system operator, SONATREL.
Distribution activities are performed by ENEO Cameroun S.A. exclusively and no unbundling is anticipated at this stage; ENEO Cameroun S.A. remains the sole entity authorized to sell electricity to the public. However, independent producers have the right to sell electricity to eligible clients (mainly industrial companies).
ENEO Cameroun S.A. currently operates three independent transport and distribution networks:
- The Southern Interconnected Grid (RIS): 225 kV network connecting the major hydropower stations (Edea and Song Loulou) and 6 main thermal power plants to supply the main consumption areas around Yaoundé (90% consumption).
- The Northern Interconnected Grid (RIN): 110 kV and 90 kV structure dispatching the power generated by Lagdo power station sufficient to cover the region’s modest demand.
- The Eastern Isolated Grid (RIE): low voltage distribution grid of 30 kV, supplied mainly by isolated diesel power plants with the capacity of ~43 MW.