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Cameroon

Energy Sector

Total installed electricity generation capacity in Cameroon was 2,327 MW in 2014, of which ~60% came from hydro power, the remainder sourced from fossil fuel power plants consisting of thermal fuel and gas.

Electricity Demand and Electrification Rates

In 2014, the industry consumed the majority of distributed electricity (58%), mainly consumed by the aluminium industry. Residential sector accounts for 20% of electricity consumption, public services (healthcare, education, business and administration) for 5%, hospitality sector for 2.5%, agriculture for less than 1%, and other service in the tertiary sector account for the remaining 13.5%.

It is important to note that Cameroon’s electricity sector suffers from recurrent power outages causing significant impact across the whole economy. The Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development has estimated that power failure cost close to 5 % of GDP growth per year.

 

Electricity Consumption in 2014

 

Economic Sector GWh
Industry 3,011
Transport 0
Residential 1,135
Commercial and Public Services 1,261
Agriculture / Forestry 78
Fishing 0
Other non-specified 0
Final Electricity Consumption 5485

 

Electricity Generation

The majority of grid electricity is generated by hydropower installations (~60%), followed by biomass (<1%), gas (~20%) and by a combination of heavy and light-fuel oil (~20%). The total current grid connected installed capacity of 2,327.45 MW is shared among the public utility (ENEO Cameroun S.A., formerly known as “AES Eneo”, owned at 56% by the British private equity investment firm Actis) and private producers: DPDC (86 MW), KPDC (216 MW), EDC (100 MW – emergency power plants) and numerous small IPPs (with the cumulative capacity of 973.6 MW). The capacity of ENEO Cameroun S.A. (~1000 MW) consists of 13 interconnected plants in the national network and 26 isolated gas-fired power plants of a total capacity of 43 MW.

In the current Energy Sector Development Plan 2035 the Government of Cameroon stated a goal to reach electricity production capacity of at least 3 000 MW by 2020 (6 000 MW by 2030) and to increase the current electricity access rate from 55% to 75% by 2020.

Transmission and Distribution

The transmission network in Cameroon connects 24 substations by 1,944.29 km of high voltage lines, 15,081.48 km of medium voltage lines and 15,209.25 km of low voltage lines.

The distribution network consists of 11,450 km of lines of low voltage (5.5 – 33 kV) and 11,158 km of lines of medium voltage (220 – 380 kV). Aging energy infrastructure leads to frequent shutdowns and transmission losses are estimated to be around 9%. Power interruptions and load shedding are also common, especially when the rainfall is low. The total cost of investment for the expansion of the transmission and distribution network across the country is estimated to be approximately USD 405 million.

In accordance with the 2011 Law, the unbundling of the transmission network has started. All transmission activities that are presently carried out by ENEO Cameroun S.A., under its transmission concession agreement, will be transferred to the new public transmission system operator, SONATREL.

Distribution activities are performed by ENEO Cameroun S.A. exclusively and no unbundling is anticipated at this stage; ENEO Cameroun S.A. remains the sole entity authorized to sell electricity to the public. However, independent producers have the right to sell electricity to eligible clients (mainly industrial companies).

ENEO Cameroun S.A. currently operates three independent transport and distribution networks:

  1. The Southern Interconnected Grid (RIS): 225 kV network connecting the major hydropower stations (Edea and Song Loulou) and 6 main thermal power plants to supply the main consumption areas around Yaoundé (90% consumption).
  2. The Northern Interconnected Grid (RIN): 110 kV and 90 kV structure dispatching the power generated by Lagdo power station sufficient to cover the region’s modest demand.
  3. The Eastern Isolated Grid (RIE): low voltage distribution grid of 30 kV, supplied mainly by isolated diesel power plants with the capacity of ~43 MW.

 

Transmission and Distribution Network in Cameroon

Source: GENI

Electricity Tariffs

Tariffs are defined by the administration in charge of electricity further to the advice of the sector regulator, ARSEL’s. Tariffs are reviewed every 5 years; next revision is scheduled for 2017.

 

Current Electricity Tariff Schedule for Low Voltage (2012)

 

Low voltage Tariffs (in XAF/kWh)
1. RESIDENTIAL
< 110kWh 50
111-400kWh 79
401-800kWh 94
>801kWh 99
2. COMMERCIAL
< 110kWh 84
111-400kWh 92
>401kWh 99
3. PUBLIC LIGHTING 66

 

 

Current Electricity Tariff Schedule for Medium Voltage (2012)

 

Medium Voltage

 

0–200 hours/year (XAF/kWh)

 

201–400 hours/year

(XAF/kWh)

 

>400 hours/year

(XAF/kWh)

 

Peak hours (23:00-18:00) 70 65 60
Off-peak hours (18:00-23:00) 85 85 85
Fixed monthly premium: 3,700 XAF/kW of contract power

 

 

Current Electricity Tariff Schedule for High voltage (2012)

 

High Voltage:
Unregulated

 

Off-Grid Electrification

Rural electrification has been increasing but remains relatively low at 23% in 2014 (from an estimated 17% in 2013). For areas remaining off-grid, programmes under the Rural Electrification Master Plan (PDER) concentrate on the rehabilitation and construction of diesel and mini-hydro plants.

There are some limited examples of initial private sector development engagement within the off-grid sector in Cameroon. These include an off-grid energy project by the Norwegian entity SunErgy to provide electricity to 92 villages (350,000 people) in the south West of the country through solar power. The firm estimates that approximately 10,000 jobs will be created through the project in addition to the construction of schools, health centres, roads and other social amenities. In addition it was announced in 2012 that the German firm Antaris Solar was entering the mobile off-grid market for PV systems in Cameroon through their first eKiss and mini eKiss models, with output potential between 350 and 2000 watts. In addition Energy for Development has carried out the deployment of a solar power plant in the village of Bambouti which is operated and maintained by a local Co-operative.

Key figures

Available statistics:
Capital
Yaounde
Official languages
French, English
Population (2016 est.)24.36m
24.36m
Population growth (2016 est.), %
2.58
Median age (2016 est.), years
18.5
Urbanization rate (2010 - 2015), % p.a.
3.6
Urban population (2015), % of total
54.4
Rural population (2015), % of total
46
Population density (2015), per km2
49
HDI (2014)
153 of 188
National Currency
Central African CFA Franc (XAF)
Exchange rate (March 2017), USD
1 USD = 618.101 XAF
GDP (2015), USD million current
28,416
GDP growth (2015), %
5.8
GDP annual growth rate forecast (2020), %
5.5
GNI per capita (2015), PPP current int’l USD
3,070
Inflation (2016), %
0.55
Inflation Rate Forecast (2020), %
1.2
Foreign Direct Investment, net inflows (2015), BOP current USD millions
620
Net official development assistance (2014), current USD millions
852
Budget deficit (2016), % of GDP
5.6
Ease of Doing Business (2017), rank of 190
166
TI Corruption Index (2016), rank of 176
145
Installed Generation Capacity (2014), MW
2327.45
Installed Fossil Fuel Capacity (2014), % of total installed capacity
40%
Hydro Capacity (2014), % of total installed capacity
60%
Other RE Capacity (2014), % of total installed capacity
<1
Renewable electricity output as % of total electricity output excl. hydro (2014)
1
Avg. distribution and transmission losses as % of output (2013)
10
Net electricity imports (2013, est.), %
0
Electrification rate, total (2014) %
62
Electrification rate, urban (2014) %
96
Electrification rate, rural (2014) %
23
Peak demand (2015, est), MW
1,000
Per capita electricity consumption (2015), kWh
317
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