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Ghana

Energy Sector

Electricity generation

As of 2015, the biggest issue for economic growth is the lack of consistent electricity. In 2012, hydropower including pumped storage accounted for 55.8% of the total electricity supply, thermal plants using light crude oil, natural gas, and diesel accounted for 44.1%, and solar power only 0.1%. Although the share of hydropower generation decreased by about 0.5% in 2011, total energy output rose by about 500 GWh in 2012 due to significant water inflows into the Akosombo reservoir. In 2012, electricity consumption in the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors accounting for 48.5%, 34.3%, and 17% respectively.

As part of the electricity sector strategy, the Government is working on attracting more private sector participation. The market has been dominated by the public sector, but an increasing number of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have begun to enter the market, as per table illustrated below.

Installed capacity by state and independent power producers:
(VRA = Volta River Authority; BPA = Bui River Authority; IPP = independent power producer)

PLANTFUEL TYPEINSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)Phase out year
Nameplate*Dependable**
Hydro
Akosombo – VRAWater1,029002065
Bui – BPAWater4003422065
Kpong – VRAWater1601402042
Sub-Total 1,581,382
Thermal
Takoradi Power Company (TAPCO) – VRALCO/Natural gas3783002011
Takoradi International Company (TICO) − IPPLCO/Natural gas2522002013
Sunon Asogli Power (Ghana) Limited (SAPP) − IPPNatural gas2201802035
Cenit Energy Ltd (CEL) − IPPLCO/Natural gas1261102037
Tema Thermal 1 Power Plant (TT1PP) – VRALCO/Natural gas1261102014
Tema Thermal 2 Power Plant (TT2PP) − IPPNatural gas49.5452035
Takoradi T3 − VRALCO1321202038
Mines Reserve Plant (MRP) − IPPDiesel/gas85802032
Effasu Power BargeNatural gas125100n/a
Sub-Total 1,4941,245
Embedded
Genser Power − IPPLPG52.1***
Sub-Total 502. Jan
Renewables
VRA SolarSolar02. Mai01. Sep
Sub-total 02. Mai01. Sep
TOTAL3,081.002,631.00

Source: Energy Commission of Ghana, 2014

*This information is available from the Technical Division of the Energy Commission.
** This information is based on extensive operational experience, and is provided by the utilities (VRA, etc.).
***Estimated

Over the last two decades, demand for electricity has grown by 10-15% annually, due to the expanding industrial and commercial sectors as well as high population growth. Forecasts project that electricity demand will continue to grow at an annual rate of at least 7%

Although efforts are under way to introduce non-conventional energy sources such as solar across the country, the proportion of households using solar powered lighting only rose from 0.1% in 2000 to 0.2% in 2010. The Upper West region had the highest proportion of solar energy users (0.7%).

Utility tariffs rose steadily in 2014, and as of October 2014 were as follows:

Electricity tariffs effective from 1 October 2014, Gp (Ghana pesewas; GHS 1 = Gp 100)
Non-residential 0-300 (Gp/kWh)59.24
301-600 (Gp/kWh)63.04
601+ (Gp/kWh)99.47
Service charge (Gp/month)645.88
Residential 0-50 (exclusive) (Gp/kWh)20.54
51-300 (Gp/kWh)41.21
301-600 (Gp/kWh)53.48
601+ (Gp/kWh)59.42
Service charge (Gp/month)387.53

Source: Public Utilities Regulatory Commission 2014

Transmission and distribution network

The transmission and distribution network is operated by state-owned enterprises. There is one transmission company, Ghana Grid Company Limited (GRIDCo), and two distribution companies with regional responsibilities – Northern Electricity Department (NED) covers the north of the country and Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) serves the south. Energy produced at generating stations is transmitted through an interconnected transmission network at 69kV (138.8km), 161kV (4,030.6km), 225kV (74.3km) and 330kV (219km). GRIDCo is responsible for operating the National Interconnected Transmission System (NITS), for bulk electricity purchases from generators and for sales to NED and ECG.

The main electricity producer, Volta River Authority (VRA), is a state-owned electricity utility that owns and operates thermal and hydropower plants, and supplies electricity to GRIDCo.

 

http://www.gridcogh.com/en/national-grid.php

Source: GRIDCo

Key figures

Available statistics:
Capital
Accra
Official language
English
Population (2015 est.), m.
26.33
Compound Annual (GDP) Growth Rate, (2011-2015), %
6.1
Population growth (2015 est.), %
2.18
GDP per capita (2015), USD (current rate)
1,381.4
Rural population (2015 est.), % of total
46
Ease of Doing Business Index (2015)
70 (of 189)
Median age of population, (2014 est.) years
20.9
Inflation (2014), %
17
National currency
Cedi (GHS)
Installed generation capacity (2014 ets.), MW
2,831
Installed fossil fuel capacity (2014), MW
1,248
Hydro capacity (2014), MW
1,580
Other RE capacity (2014), MW
2.5
Renewable electricity output (2014), in % of total electricity output excl. hydroelectric
0.1
Capacity target for 2016, MW
5,000
Average distribution and transmission losses (2014), in % of output
4.3
Net electricity imports (2013 est.), GWh
27
Peak demand (2014), MW
2,179.5
Per capita electricity consumption (2014), kWh
1,442.8
Electrification rate, total (2012), %
64
Electrification rate, urban (2012), %
85
Electrification rate, rural (2012), %
41
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