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Madagascar

Renewable Energy Potential

Physical Potential

A majority of Madagascar’s renewable energy potential remains unharnessed. The country has high hydro, solar, and wind potential and considerable biomass resources. In its New Energy Policy (NEP), the government identified an ambition to produce 85% of the country’s power from renewable sources by 2030.

Solar Potential

Madagascar has a large solar energy potential. Almost all regions of Madagascar receive over 2,800 hours of sunshine per year, with the daily solar radiation ranging from 1,500 to 2,100 kWh/m2. PV systems are currently utilized for powering public buildings such as health clinics, as well as off-grid community electrification solutions. A few foreign companies are assisting with various electrification projects on a small-scale (i.e. solar-powered pumps for clean water).

 

Global Horizontal Solar Irradiation in Madagascar

Source: Solargis

Hydroelectric Potential

Hydroelectric potential has been estimated at around 7.8 GW, although the economically exploitable potential has not been specified. Only 2% of this technical potential is currently utilized. More than 800 untapped high potential hydro sites have been reported throughout the country, ranging from 10 kW to 600 MW. The World Bank (through ESMAP) is providing technical assistance to the sector, including the mapping of potential for small hydropower projects (<20 MW). A resulting study has identified 2,045 small hydro sites and prioritized 30 promising sites from 1 to 20 MW.

 

Location of identified high potential hydro sites

Source: ORE

Biomass Potential

High potential for biomass energy production from sugar production is located in the South , where bagasse co-generation is already common . Madagascar has several decades of experience in jatropha production, and is recognized as one of the largest producers of jatropha-based biodiesel in Africa.

Wind Potential

The northern part of the country, around Antsiranana, and the southern part of the country, around Taolagnaro, have wind speeds of 3 to 8 m/s , with a potential capacity of about 2,000 MW for electricity production.

 

Wind potential in Antsiranana region (North)

Source: Energyafrica

 

Geothermal Potential

Madagascar is believed to have geothermal potential estimated in excess of 350 MW – exploration is at an early stage.

Key figures

Available statistics:
Official name
Madagascar
Capital
Antananarivo
Official languages
Malagasy French
Population (July 2016)
24,430,325
Population growth, in % (2016, est)
2.54
Median age, in years (2016 est.)
19.5
Urbanization rate , in % (2010 – 2015 est.)
4.69
Urban population, % of total (2015)
22
Rural population, % of total (2015)
78
Demographic density, per km2 (2009, planned update 2017)
33,4
Human Development Indicator (2015)
154
Total foreign investment, USD billion (2016)
500
Budget deficit, % (2016)
4.3
National currency
Malagasy Ariary (MGA)
Location
Eastern Africa
GDP, in USD billion current (2016 est.)
37.49
GDP real growth rate, in % (2016 est.)
4.1
GDP growth forecast, in % (2015 – 2019)
8.38
GNI per Capita, current USD (2015)
420
Compound Annual Growth Rate, in %
2.9
Population below poverty line, in % (2010 est.)
75.3
Inflation rate, in % (2016)
6.6
Inflation forecast, in % (2015 – 2019)
8
Exchange rate, USD (January 31th 2017)
3,200
Ease-of-doing business Index (2016, out of 190 countries)
167
ODA, USD billion (2015)
619
TI Corruption Index (2016)
28/100
Ease of starting a business index (2016, out of 189 countries )
128
Installed Generating Capacity, in MW (2016)
681
Installed Fossil Fuel Capacity, in MW (2016)
517
Installed Hydro Capacity, in MW (2016)
163
Other Renewable Energy Capacity, in kW (2016)
159 (Solar), 177 (Wind), 304 (Biomass)
Renewable electricity output as % of total electricity output excl. hydro (2016)
1
Total production, in GWh (2015)
1,542
Planned Expansion, in GWh (2030)
7,900
Average distribution and transmission losses as % of output (2014)
34
Net electricity imports, in kWh (2015)
0
Electrification rate, total in % (2015)
15
Electrification rate, urban in % (2015)
54
Electrification rate, rural in % (2015)
5
Peak demand, in MW (2015)
328
Per capita electricity consumption, in kWh (2015)
46
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