Mozambique’s hydroelectric potential is among the highest in Africa, estimated at 19,000 MW. The country is home to one of the largest hydro dams on the continent, the Cahora Bassa Dam, which has an installed capacity of 2,075 MW and produces electricity for Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana and the wider Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). Mozambique itself only procures up to 500 MW (300 MW firm, 200 MW non-firm) from the dam, transported mostly via South Africa. With the majority of power used by neighbouring countries, and the Government of Mozambique as the dam’s majority owner (92.5%), the dam is an important source of foreign revenue in the Mozambican economy.
EdM as the national utility holds ownership of various hydro- and thermal energy units as shown in the table below. Some of the units either require refurbishment or are currently not being utilized for varying reasons. Available capacity owned by EdM currently stands at 117 MW.
IPPs recently added two gas fired power plants to the grid – the 100 MW Gigawatt project and the 175 MW Central Termoeletrica de Ressano Garcia (CTRG) power plant jointly owned by Sasol and EdM. A World Bank study (2015) furthermore indicated that, at the time, 65 MW of emergency power was procured from Aggreko.
|Name||Type||Installed Capacity (MW)||Available Capacity to EdM (MW)||Comment|
|HCB Cahora Bassa Firm||Hydro||2,075||300||Owned by HCB, mainly for export|
|HCB Cahora Bassa Non-firm||Hydro||200||Owned by HCB, mainly for export|
|Mavuzi||Hydro||52||36||EdM, Under rehabilitation|
|GTG1 Maputo||Jet A1||17||0||EdM|
|Térmica de Temane||Gas||11.2||11.2||EdM|
|Central Termoeletrica de Ressano Garcia (CTRG)||Gas||175||175||IPP (Owned by Sasol and EdM)|
|Sub-Total|| ||2,561||892|| |
|Aggreko 1||Gas||15||15||Temporary IPP|
|Aggreko 2||Gas||32||32||Temporary IPP|
|Aggreko (Nacala)||Diesel||18||18||Temporary IPP|
|Sub-Total|| ||65||65|| |
As a result of the large share of hydropower in the generation capacity mix, electricity generated in 2014 was largely produced from hydropower plants (92%) with only 7% and 1% from gas and diesel power plants, respectively.
Proposed power plants
Based on a World Bank study from 2015, the Government of Mozambique estimates to have expanded generation capacity to 3,138 MW by 2022 and 4,163 MW by 2030. In this scenario, IPPs become the largest group of generators. In the medium- to long-term, the country is expected to exploit ~3,000 MW of additional hydropower capacity. The projects most concretely discussed are the Mphanda Nkuwa 1,500 MW project as well as a 1,245 MW expansion to Cahora Bassa. The country is additionally keen to utilize national fossil fuel resources, i.e. natural gas and coal, for power generation. Although no coal power plant has been constructed to date, approximately 2 GW of coal capacity is planned. Natural gas is intended to provide up to 1,400 MW of power capacity in the medium- to long-term.
The abovementioned capacity expansion projects will define the envisioned future generation mix as one dominated by hydro, coal and gas power plants. A 5.4 GW pipeline of “priority projects” was recently outlined in the Renewable Energy Atlas of Mozambique. Overall, renewables will play a minor role for utility-scale power generation; their utilization is seen as most important for the off-grid sector.
Expected Priority Generation Projects
|Power Plant||Capacity (MW)||Technology|
|Gigawatt Thermal Power Plant (Kuvaninga)||40||Gas|
|Kuvaninga Chockwe Thermal Power Plant||40||Gas|
|Mocuba Solar Plant||40||Solar PV|
|Metoro Solar Plant||30||Solar PV|
|Maputo Thermal Power Plant||100||Gas|
|Temane Thermal Power Plant||400||Gas|
|Nacala Thermal Power Plant (Emergency)||40||Duel Fuel|
|Nacala Thermal Power Plant||200||Coal|
|Tete (Moatize) Thermal Power Plant||1,200||Coal|
|Tete (Jindal) Thermal Power Plant||150||Coal|
|Tete (Ncondezi) Thermal Power Plant||300||Coal|
|Cahora Bassa North||1,245||Hydro|
|Lúrio II Hydro Plant||120||Hydro|
Source: EdM, Presentation to ESWG, March 2016