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Rwanda

Energy Sector

Electricity generation

Rwanda faced severe power shortages in 2004 when generation capacities could not keep up with demand. Since that crisis generation capacities have increased significantly, but still remain at a low level compared with the size of the country’s growing economy.

As part of efficiency measures to improve the system load factor, time of use tariffs were introduced for industrial consumers in May 2010. These tariffs were established to create incentives for industries to shift production from peak hours (17.00-23.00) to off-peak hours (23.00-7.00).

Rwanda still has a low rate of access to electricity despite the outstanding efforts made to increase it from 9.5% in mid-2010 to 16% in 2012. The government has launched an ambitious programme to increase access to electricity. The Electricity Access Roll-out Program (EARP) was set up in 2010 to finance and implement rural electrification projects.
Rwanda’s electricity generation capacity amounted to around 111 MW in 2014. About 59% of installed capacity is made up of hydropower plants, which have generated the bulk of electricity in Rwanda since the 1960s, with capacities ranging from 0.1 MW to 12 MW. Fossil fuel plants make up 47% of installed capacity and are powered by diesel or heavy fuel oil. There is also a pilot methane gas fired power plant fired accounting for 3% of capacity.

In 2012 Rwanda imported 82 GWh (net) of power, comprising electricity from the Rusizi I and II hydropower plants (contracted capacity: 3.5 MW and 12 MW). The plants are operated by Société Internationale d’Electricité des Pays des Grands Lacs (SINELAC) and Société Nationale d’Electricité (SNEL) respectively, both under a tri-national agreement with the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda.

 

Electricity tariff (excl. 18% VAT)

Industrial consumers

Off-peak hours
(23.00-7.00)

96 RWF/kWh

Mid-peak hours
(7.00-17.00)

126 RWF/kWh

Peak hours
(17.00-23.00)

168 RWF/kWh

Household consumers

134 RWF/kWh

Source: RURA Strategic Plan 2013-2018

Share of resources in electricity generation as of 2014

Transmission and distribution network

Rwanda has around 384 km of 70 kV and 110 kV high-voltage (HV) transmission lines, and 4,900 km of medium-voltage (MV, 30 kV, 15 kV and 6.6 kV) and low-voltage (LV, 380 V and 220 V) lines. The distribution network is composed of 15 substations (HV and MV). The grid is interconnected with the networks of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda.

Transmission between the different national networks is managed by SINELAC. Rwanda has adopted single phase distribution lines for rural electrification.

According to the regulator, RURA, technical and non-technical losses amounted to 24.5% on average in 2013.

Source: Source: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Rwanda_-_Energy_Sector_Review_and_Action_Plan.pdf Source: African Development Bank

 

Key figures

Available statistics:
Capital
Kigali
Official languages
English, French & Kinyarwanda
Population (2017)
11,809,295
Median age (2016 est.), years
19.0
Urbanization rate (2010 - 2015), % p.a.
6.43
Urban population (2015), % of total
28.8
Rural population (2015), % of total
71.2
Population density (2015), per km2
470.6
HDI (2014), rank of 188
163 of 188
National Currency
Rwandan Franc, RWF
Exchange rate (February 2017) USD
1 USD = 824 RWF
GDP (2015), USD million current
8.096
GDP growth (2015), %
6.9
GDP annual growth rate forecast (2020), %
6.49
GNI per capita (2015), current int’l USD
1,720
Inflation (2016), %
12
Inflation Rate Forecast (2020), %
5.5
Foreign Direct Investment, net inflows (2015), BOP current USD millions
323
Net official development assistance (2014), current USD million
1.034
Budget deficit (2016), % of GDP
-5.0
Ease of Doing Business (2017), rank of 190
56
TI Corruption Index (2016), rank of 176
50
Installed Generation Capacity (MW, 2016)
189
Installed Fossil Fuel Capacity (MW, 2016), % of total installed capacity
36
Hydro Capacity (MW, 2016), % of total installed capacity
44
Other RE Capacity (2016), % of total installed capacity
4
Electrification rate, total (2014) %
27
Electrification rate, urban (2014) %
72
Electrification rate, rural (2014) %
9
Peak demand (2016), MW
120
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